Laparoscopic surgery is a modern way of endoscopic surgery of the abdomen using a few small incisions allowing instruments to be entered in the abdominal cavity including a small camera by which surgical procedures can be recorded.
Some years ago most surgical procedures in the abdomen were carried out by invasive methods i.e. by making a large incision to enter the abdomen in order to get access to the internal organs.
Such invasive methods offers a higher risk of infections, a rather long recovery time and hospital stay, more scarring and discomfort to the patients. In the last 3 decenia the laparoscopic surgical techniques gained popularity rather quickly for a variety of procedures.
The laparoscopic approach offers a number of indisputable advantages over invasive techniques because the approach requires only minor incisions with better short term outcomes as a result.
However this new way of performing surgery demands other skills from the surgeon because there is less tactile feedback and he is forced to think 3-dimensional while working mainly on a 2-dimensional screen (although 3D-screens are available now).
Therefore the risk of damaging organs is higher unless the surgeon is well trained and experienced in such techniques. For this reason training centers were established around the world.
Because every move of the surgeon can be watched, recorded and played back laparoscopic surgery is the perfect technique to train on a screen.